Past Publications (2010-2017)

2017

Equipping and Training Modifications for Combat Arms Women

by Ellen Haring

In July 2016 at Fort Benning, Georgia, US women for the first time began training to become Army infantry and armor officers. This first cohort of women has neither been issued a women-specific equipment to accommodate smaller physical frames. In addition, while some equipment challenges can be addressed through modifications in training, others require equipment modifications and new procurement. To optimize women's performance in this uncharted terrain, the Army must ensure they receive appropriate training and equipment also collect, monitor, and evaluate data on the performance of all its soldiers.

 

 

Women, Gender and Terrorism: Gendered Aspects of Radicalization and Recruitment

Jeannette Gaudry Haynie

The rise of groups like ISIS has galvanized the expansion of the global terrorism problem. While ISIS is hardly the first extremist organization to attract women and to use gendered tactics for recruitment, its formation and growth has paralleled the explosion of social media, bringing unprecedented attention to the problem. As scholars and policymakers attempt to develop coherent responses to the threats that groups like ISIS pose, three critical issues need to be addressed.

(1) What drives individuals to join extremist groups, and are these drivers different for men or women?

(2) What are common methods of recruitment, and do they differ by gender?

(3) Have states and international institutions integrated gender perspectives in their responses to radicalization and extremist violence? Do these approaches empower women to resist recruitment?

Without an integrated dialogue between the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) and counterterrorism communities, the answers to these questions will remain incomplete and policy responses may fall short.

 

Women in Jihadist Organizations: Victims or Terrorists?

Many scholarly works on women in jihadi organizations emphasize women’s lack of agency. Authors of these works argue women have fallen victim to these male-dominated organizations and thus have lost control over their actions. However, certain groups of women in some jihadi organizations—for example, Islamic State (or IS), Jaish al-Fatah, and Jabhat Fateh al-Sham—enjoy a degree of agency within the scope of their duties.

This policy brief examines the extent to which women in jihadi organizations have agency—that is, to which extent they are able to make independent decisions. Understanding the conditions under which women have agency, allows policymakers to recognize the diversity of roles and contributions of women within jihadi organizations and design appropriate policy responses.

 

Women, Gender and Terrorism: Understanding Cultural and Organizational Differences

As the idea that women can and should play pivotal roles in preventing and countering violent extremism (P/CVE) gains greater traction, decision makers and scholars must keep striving toward a more nuanced understanding of the historical, cultural, and gendered contexts that enable extremist movements and organizations to grow.

 

Women Preventing Violent Extremism: Broadening the Binary Lens of "Mothers and Wives"

by Fauziya Abdi Ali

Violent extremist narratives and actions threaten to roll back the hard-won gains women have made in the struggle for equality. With so much at stake, women must be engaged in efforts to counter violent extremism. However, women’s engagement in the fight against violent extremism also threatens these gains if engagement remains binary, failing to take into account the diverse roles of women.

 

2016

 

Women, Gender and Terrorism: The Missing Links

Chantal de Jonge Oudraat and Michael E. Brown

 

In March 2016, WIIS launched the Women, Terrorism, and Violent Extremism program. With the generous support of the Embassy of Liechtenstein in Washington, D.C., WIIS will facilitate a series of expert roundtables to explore the role of women in terrorist and violent extremist organizations, including the gendered dimensions of radicalization. These round tables will provide a forum for bringing together an international group of experts and policymakers from the counter-terrorism and Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) communities. Key takeaways and recommendations of expert roundtables will be captured and disseminated in the form of policy briefs.

The first Policy Brief draws on the first roundtable discussion, held on March 20, 2016. This roundtable featured four noted experts: Ms. Sanam Anderlini, Co-founder and Executive Director of the International Civil Society Action Network (ICAN); Dr. Kathleen Kuehnast, Senior Gender Advisor at the United States Institute of Peace (USIP); Dr. Paul Pillar, former official of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and now a non-resident Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution; and Dr. Lorenzo Vidino, Director of the Program on Extremism at George Washington University’s Center for Cyber and Homeland Security.

WPS+GPS: Adding Gender to the Peace and Security Equation

Political leaders regularly make grand, public statements about the importance of the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) agenda for promoting national and international security, but their policy actions have fallen far short of their rhetorical declarations.

There are two main reasons for this. First, political leaders are the point persons for their male-dominated security establishments. These establishments do not prioritize women and gender issues in national and international security affairs. Second, the WPS agenda has been framed as a “women’s” issue, which makes it easier for the establishment to marginalize the WPS cause. Fixing the second problem will help us make more progress with the first—advancing women, gender perspectives, and gender equality in national and international security.

 

Women, Gender, and Terrorism Policies and Programming by Jeannette Gaudry Haynie and Dr. Chantal de Jonge Oudraat (2016)

In recent years, policymakers and international actors have begun to recognize the important role of women and women’s organizations in preventing and countering violent extremism (P/CVE). In October 2015, the UNSecurity Council adopted Resolution 2242, which linked the women, peace and security (WPS) and the P/CVE agendas and called for synergies between efforts aimed at countering violent extremism and those furthering the WPS agenda. In 2016, the US government incorporated P/CVE in its National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security.

The idea that women can be powerful allies in the fight against violent extremism is based primarily on two interrelated observations. First, women often function at the heart of their communities and are thus best placed to recognize early warning signs of radicalization. Effective P/CVE programs will capitalize on this. Second, a community that hopes to address extremism effectively must include the broadest possible range of perspectives in its programming. Because society, economies, and war affect them in gender- specific ways, women bring different perspectives to discussions and plans affecting security.

That said, women-centric P/CVE programming is in its infancy. An initial review of these programs points to five main problems, which are explored in this policy brief.

 

Women, Gender and Terrorism: Gendered Aspects of Radicalization and Recruitment by Jeannette Gaudry Haynie (2016)

The rise of groups like ISIS has galvanized the expansion of the global terrorism problem. While ISIS is hardly the first extremist organization to attract women and to use gendered tactics for recruitment, its formation and growth has paralleled the explosion of social media, bringing unprecedented attention to the problem. As scholars and policymakers attempt to develop coherent responses to the threats that groups like ISIS pose, three critical issues need to be addressed.

(1) What drives individuals to join extremist groups, and are these drivers different for men or women?

(2) What are the common methods of recruitment, and do they differ by gender?

(3) Have states and international institutions integrated gender perspectives in their responses to radicalization and extremist violence? Do these approaches empower women to resist recruitment?

Without an integrated dialogue between the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) and counterterrorism communities, the answers to these questions will remain incomplete and policy responses may fall short.

 

UN Security Resolution 1325 in Peacekeeping by Clara Fisher, Paige Harland, Kat Ilich, and Erin McGown (2016).

Despite the resolution’s widespread praise and recognition and the development of guidelines and indicators, on-the-ground implementation of UNSCR 1325 has been uneven, and has had varying degrees of effectiveness. This has resulted in a lack of women in senior leadership positions, failure to take gender-specific needs into account, and a loss of legitimacy for the United Nations. The full implementation of UNSCR 1325 would promote the inclusion of women and a gender perspective in peacekeeping missions.

This paper seeks to answer the question: How can the UN system bridge the implementation gaps of Security Council Resolution 1325 in its peacekeeping operations? We found that while enormous strides have been made in the inclusion of women and a gender perspective in peacekeeping, implementation is inhibited by three core issues: a lack of gender perspective, a lack of accountability, and a lack of resources. However, we also found that there are many practical suggestions for solutions to these core problems which could improve the implementation of UNSCR 1325.

 

Combat Integration Handbook: A Leader's Guide to Success

The Combat Integration Handbook is a reference guide for U.S. Army combat arms leaders on how to successfully lead gender integration in their units.

The Handbook exclusively addresses common challenges with gender integration in combat arms units and gives leaders and Soldiers best practices for successfully navigating the change process. This guide comes at an essential time as combat arms units await the assignment of the first combat arms women making their way through their training pipelines.

Following is an outline of the research that informed the handbook:

  • More than 30 hours of exclusive interviews with Cultural Support Team members, women who were attached to Special Operations units in Afghanistan. More than a half dozen individual interviews with combat arms officers and NCOs.
  • A Working Group of over 20 active-duty Army officers and NCOs from across the US Army, who provided experience, input and feedback to the handbook.
  • Raw data from a Maneuver Center of Excellence survey of 816 officers from the Command and General Staff College Intermediate Level Education, which included the officer's views and concerns about women in combat.
  • Historical U.S. Army Studies, current studies on gender integration, partner nation reports on their own gender integration of combat arms and various other military, civilian and academic reports analyzing gender integration in the U.S. military and worldwide.

Although the handbook was created for combat arms units, leaders of all mixed-gender units may find this guide helpful.

In addition to the handbook WIIS provides the following courses to military units:

Leading Change: Integrating Women into Combat Units (1-2 days)

This course provides a brief historical overview, followed by an examination of legal frameworks and policies. It introduces the student to the vast number of research studies that have already been conducted on this topic and it ends with practical methods for leading organizational change in military units. Read more here.

Unbiased Performance Evaluations (2 days)

This training session is designed to: 1) Increase evaluators’ awareness concerning bias, specifically regarding gender and 2) Provide tools to prevent it. Evaluators completing this session will contribute to more objective assessments thereby maintaining performance standards fairly and consistently. Read more here.

For more courses visit the Women, Peace and Security Leadership Program

For more information on WIIS Gender Integration Workshops please email WIIS at CII@wiisglobal.org.

 

2015

The 1325 Scorecard Report

Chantal de Jonge Oudraat, Sonja Stojanović-Gajić, Carolyn Washington, and Brooke Stedman

WIIS launched the 1325 Scorecard at NATO HQ on October 29, 2015. The 1325 Scorecard is a tool to evaluate how well the principles of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (UNSCR 1325) are implemented within the armed forces of NATO Allies. It also provides NATO and NATO member and partner states indications of how to improve implementation. Finally, it helps to further standardization and interoperability amongst NATO Allies.

Integration of Women in Ground Combat (2015)

Under the 1994 Direct Ground Combat Definition and Assignment Rule, women in the US military were excluded from assignments in which the primary mission was to engage in direct ground combat, and were permitted to be excluded from other assignments in certain circumstances. That policy was rescinded on January 24, 2013, by then-Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Martin Dempsey, and the Services were directed to open closed positions and units to women not later than January 1, 2016.

All Military Jobs Should Be Open to Women, Including Those in the Marine Corps. No Exceptions

January 2013 directives by DoD Secretary Panetta/JCS Chairman Dempsey rescinded the 1994 ban on  women serving in direct ground combat. Under the directives, gender neutral occupational standards  must be validated and in place by September 2015. Integration of women is to occur as expeditiously as  possible but not later than January 1, 2016. If any Service wishes to request that any MOS or unit  remain closed, that request must be personally approved by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs and then  by the Secretary of Defense, and be “narrowly tailored and based on a rigorous analysis of factual data  regarding the knowledge, skills and abilities needed for the position.” Under DoD guidance, any  exceptions are to be requested by the end of September 2015.

 

Marine Corps Study Analysis

It is inappropriate to draw conclusions from the Marine Corps study about the abilities and performance of all women based on the abilities and performance of some women.

 

Policy Brief - Women in Combat- CSTs

On 12-14 July 2015, Women in International Security (WIIS) conducted a three-day data-gathering workshop with over twenty women from the U.S. Special Operations Command’s Cultural Support Team (CST) program—the all-female teams that deployed with U.S. Special Operations Forces in Afghanistan from 2010 until 2014. Approximately 200 women participated in this program over 5 years. In addition to the workshop, we surveyed over 25 CST members from various years and several men whose teams the CSTs supported. Following is a report of the initial findings from the workshop.

Combat Integration Status Report

Combat Integration: A Snapshot Two Years Later

Combat Integration: Status Update

 

3-piece publication on the status of UNSCR 1325

  1. Gender Mainstreaming: Indicators for the Implementation of UNSCR 1325 and Its Related Resolutions by Chantal de Jonge Oudraat, Sonja Stojanović‐Gajić, Carolyn Washington, and Brooke Stedman.
  2. Women in Combat - Adaptation and Change in the US Military by Ellen Haring.
  3. The Piece Missing from Peace by Jeannette Gaudry Haynie

2014

Women, Peace and Security: Practical Guidance on Using Law to Empower Women in Post-Conflict Systems by Arostegui, J; Bichetoero, V. (2014)

With the passage of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 in 2000, the Security Council for the first time not only recognized the disproportionate impact of conflict on women, it also mandated that the UN and all member states increase women’s participation in all peace processes, establish enforceable protections and ensure justice for women. Along with its companion Resolutions 1820, 1888, 1889, 1960, 2106 and 2122, which further clarify its requirements, UNSCR 1325 provides a strong framework and mandate for advancing gender equality and empowering and protecting women. It incorporates binding international law on the rights and protection of women and children such as the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), the Geneva Conventions and many others. Using the 1325 Women, Peace and Security framework as a synthesis of existing international law on the rights and protection of women in conflict and transition provides powerful tools to build inclusive and sustainable peace and security.

 

Women, Peace and Security: Practical Guidance on Using Law to Empower Women in Post-Conflict Case Studies  by Arostegui, J; Bichetero, V. (2014)

Uganda has had a history of civil conflict since its independence from the United Kingdom in 1962 - triggered by political instability and a series of military coups between groups of different ethnic and ideological composition that resulted in a series of dictatorships. In 1966, just four years after independence, the central government attacked the Buganda Kingdom, which had dominated during British rule, forced the King to flee, abolished traditional kingdoms and declared Uganda a republic. In 1971 Army Commander Idi Amin Dada overthrew the elected government of Milton Obote, and for eight years led the country through a regime of terror under which many people lost their lives. Amin was overthrown in 1979 by rebel Ugandan soldiers in exile supported by the army of Tanzania. Obote returned to power through the 1980 general elections, ruling with army support. In 1981 a five-year civil war broke out led by the current president, Yoweri Kaguta Museveni and the National Resistance Army (NRA), protesting the fraudulent elections. Known as the Ugandan Bush War, the conflict took place mainly in an area of fourteen districts north of Kampala that was known as the Luwero Triangle. Many human rights abuses were committed as the government attempted to suppress the rebellion and thousands of people were killed. The NRA finally succeeded in overthrowing the Obote government in 1986 and Museveni became president.

 

Progress Report on Women in Peace & Security Careers: U.S. Congressional Staffs by Shoemaker, J;  Poiré, M. (2014).

This report, Women in Peace and Security Careers: U.S. Congressional Staffs, is intended to raise awareness among the policy community about how women are faring on Capitol Hill and what needs to be done to support more women in leadership positions in the legislative policy environment. This is the third WIIS study in the Women In Peace and Security Careers series. Since 2008, WIIS has documented the status of women in leadership positions and women’s perspectives on career advancement in United Nations Peace Operations and in the Executive Branch of the U.S. Government. These studies are based on qualitative data gathered from individual interviews and focus groups. The series highlights gaps in women’s representation and the voices and experiences of women who are navigating paths to advancement. The series also offers recommendations for peace and security institutions to better support women’s participation.

 Integration of Women in Ground Combat: A Snap Shot One Year Later

Under the 1994 Direct Ground Combat Definition and Assignment Rule, women in the US military were prohibited from being assigned to jobs (military occupational specialties), positions and units whose primary mission was to engage in direct ground combat. That policy was rescinded on January 24, 2013 by then-Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Martin Dempsey and the Services were directed to open closed occupations, positions and units to women no later than January 1, 2016.

 2013

Four Critical Elements of Successful Integration

by Kerry Crawford

Members of the Combat Integration Initiative (CII) and experts on integration efforts and policies in the United States (US) and abroad met on June 28, 2013 to discuss the four conditions that CII believes are critical to the successful integration of women into all combat specialties: 1) establishing specific, consistent, and validated physical standards; (2) integrating gender perspectives in the leadership of combat specialties; (3) understanding the role of critical mass and mentors; and (4) clearly communicating policy changes and ensuring consistency and follow-through.

 

A Review of the Implementation Plans for the Elimination of the Direct Ground Combat Assignment Rule

The Combat Integration Initiative (CII) is a working group composed of veterans, servicemembers, lawyers, scholars, and members of civil society who are committed to the full integration of women across all branches and occupational specialties of the Armed Services.

Each of the military departments and the U.S. Special Operations Command (SOCOM) submitted their proposed plans for eliminating the remaining restrictions imposed by the now rescinded direct ground combat assignment rule in writing to the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) in June, 2013. 1 On June 27, 2013, CII teams reviewed the plans for their clarity, specificity, and transparency; their analysis is presented below.

 

Progress Report on Women in Peace & Security Careers: U.S. Congressional Staffs by Shoemaker, J;  Poiré, M. (2014).

This report, Women in Peace and Security Careers: U.S. Congressional Staffs, is intended to raise awareness among the policy community about how women are faring on Capitol Hill and what needs to be done to support more women in leadership positions in the legislative policy environment. This is the third WIIS study in the Women In Peace and Security Careers series. Since 2008, WIIS has documented the status of women in leadership positions and women’s perspectives on career advancement in United Nations Peace Operations and in the Executive Branch of the U.S. Government. These studies are based on qualitative data gathered from individual interviews and focus groups. The series highlights gaps in women’s representation and the voices and experiences of women who are navigating paths to advancement. The series also offers recommendations for peace and security institutions to better support women’s participation.

 2010

Progress Report on Women in Peace & Security Careers: U.S. Executive Branch by Shoemaker, J; Park, J. (2010)

Recently, studies have focused on women’s leadership in some sectors, including academia, the media, and corporations. These studies have highlighted gaps in representation and proposed recommendations for improving women’s opportunities. But a missing component of research seems to be on women’s presence in a particular area of utmost importance—the national security and foreign policy arena. This is the first study to examine women in leadership within the Executive Branch of the U.S. Government in international security.

 

2008

Women in United Nations Peace Operations: Increasing the Leadership Opportunities  by Conaway, C; Shoemaker, J. (2008)

Since the historic adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000), the recognition of the important and beneficial role that women play in building sustainable peace has steadily increased. Civil society arguments for women’s inclusion in the formal processes of peacemaking and peacebuilding are bolstered by growing evidence of women’s impact on the ground in unstable and conflict-affected countries. Numerous policymakers and practitioners within the UN and other multi-lateral organizations are publicly acknowledging the value of women in leadership roles. Yet the lack of women in senior positions in the UN, particularly in peacekeeping missions, reflects the reality that significant cultural and institutional impediments remain to women’s entry and advancement within the UN. As a result, there is frustration with the slow pace of progress both inside and outside the system. There are few mechanisms in place to facilitate regular information sharing between the UN and civil society on this issue. Civil society organizations lack understanding about the skills and requirements for high-level positions, the process for selecting candidates, and the best means to nominate qualified experts. Within the UN, there are traditionally few resources and little attention devoted to outreach and communication with organizations that can access qualified female candidates, or to marketing these positions in a way that will attract the best talent.

1997

Occasional Paper Series: WIIS published several papers in 1997 on the topic: ‘Politics, Foreign Policy, and Civil-Military Relations in a Post-Cold War World.’ These papers were edited by Gale A. Mattox and Linda Racioppi. Included among the papers were “Six Russian Views on Politics, Foreign Policy, and Civil-Military Relations in a Post-Cold War World” by Linda Racioppi, “The Politics of Conflict Resolution in Contemporary Russia” by Tatiana A. Shakleina, and a paper written in Russian by Linda Racioppi.

WIIS Publications showcases the work provided by WIIS staff, affiliates, members, and the Civil Society Working Group for Women, Peace, and Security.

If you are a member of Women In International Security and would like your recent publication featured on our website, please email WIIS Global at info@wiisglobal.org.