WIIS Publications

Sexual- and Gender-Based Violence in Refugee Settings in Kenya and Uganda

Pearl Karuhanga Atuhaire and Grace Ndirangu

The international community has taken a strong stance against conflict-related sexual violence, deeming it a war crime. However, international actors are paying scant attention to sexual- and gender-based violence (SGBV) in refugee settings. Urban refugee women and girls and those in refugee camps often grapple with SGBV in their countries of asylum, long after they have fled their homes and communities. Our research among refugees from the Democratic Republic of Congo currently in Kenya and Uganda has unearthed a high incidence of SGBV against refugee women and girls. Research by the International Rescue Committee (IRC) indicates that one in five refugee and displaced women experience sexual violence. Many of the survivors often have no one to turn to for protection and resort to sex work and other risky means to survive.

In this policy brief, we examine the extent of the problem, identify obstacles to progress, and recommend actions governments and humanitarian organizations can take to better protect refugees. In short, we argue that refugee settlements are not safe spaces for refugee women. Humanitarian officials, governments, and the international
community must do more to address this problem.

At the UN Peacekeeping Defense Ministerial Conference, Canada announced the launch of the Elsie Initiative on Women in Peace Operations. Through tailored technical support, the initiative aims to help troop-contributing countries recruit and retain female soldiers. It is one of the first initiatives to directly address the lack of female personnel at the deploying country level.

As one of the co-hosts of the 2017 UN Peacekeeping ministerial, the United States is in a strong position to partner in the work of the Elsie Initiative. By so doing, it can entrench the concept of gender parity in its current UN peacekeeping training programs and deployments and better lead knowledge-sharing efforts with partner militaries. The Elsie Initiative also gives the United States an opportunity to reinforce partnerships that enhance global security while bolstering its leadership in gender parity and UN reform.

Efforts such as the Elsie initiative to improve the effectiveness of peace operations will directly benefit US national interests by strengthening alliances and enabling recipient countries to take an increasing role in providing for collective and regional security.

 

Improving Gender Training in UN Peacekeeping Operations

Velomahanina T. Razakamaharavo, Luisa Ryan, and Leah Sherwood

United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1325 expressed a global commitment to the Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) agenda. Many policy statements and guidance on gender mainstreaming have followed in the 17 years since UNSCR 1325’s passage, yet peace operations on the ground appear little affected. They continue to overlook the many roles women play in conflict and conflict resolution, fail to engage fully with women’s organizations, and fail to include women fighters in reintegration and security sector reform programs. They even perpetrate exploitation: Sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) continues to be widespread within peace missions themselves, despite increased SEA and conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV) training for operation forces. Further, peace operations have failed to address the more inclusive Gender, Peace and Security (GPS) agenda and the broader role gender plays in conflict dynamics. For example, while missions may seek to address the effects of conflict-related sexual violence on women and girls, they may miss similar impacts for male victims and their families.

Improved gender training could help ameliorate this mismatch between policy rhetoric and practice. This policy brief outlines current gender training practice, identifies gaps, and recommends ways to strengthen training in order to help peace operations personnel better understand how to apply a gender lens to their missions.

 

Missing Figures

Spencer Beall

 

While the cybersecurity industry will require approximately six million workers to meet its projected job demand by 2019, many positions will remain unfilled without more female cybersecurity professionals. Currently, women comprise only 11 percent global cybersecurity professionals. Women’s underrepresentation in cybersecurity is not just an economic workplace issue, but also has a profound impact on the type of technologies being developed and hence impacts everyone in the digital age.

The report will explore some of the main barriers that impede women’s entry,
professional advancement, and retention in cybersecurity, including the pervasive gender
discrimination in technology professions. Next, I will examine three core reasons why it is
essential to get more women in cybersecurity, namely (1) to maximize innovation potential; (2)to expand usability of digital products to meet the needs of all consumers; and (3) to strengthen the global economy by fulfilling the cybersecurity industry’s rapidly growing job demand. Recommendations on how to dismantle the gender gap in cybersecurity and how to create in the digital age a global workforce that is safer, more efficient, and more prosperous are presented.

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Equipping and Training Modifications for Combat Arms Women by Ellen Haring

In July 2016 at Fort Benning, Georgia, US women for the first time began training to become Army infantry and armor officers. This first cohort of women has neither been issued a women-specific equipment to accommodate smaller physical frames. In addition, while some equipment challenges can be addressed through modifications in training, others require equipment modifications and new procurement. To optimize women's performance in this uncharted terrain, the Army must ensure they receive appropriate training and equipment also collect, monitor, and evaluate data on the performance of all its soldiers.

women-gender-and-terrorism

 

Women, Gender and Terrorism: Gendered Aspects of Radicalization and Recruitment

 

Jeannette Gaudry Haynie

 

The rise of groups like ISIS has galvanized the expansion of the global terrorism problem. While ISIS is hardly the first extremist organization to attract women and to use gendered tactics for recruitment, its formation and growth has paralleled the explosion of social media, bringing unprecedented attention to the problem. As scholars and policymakers attempt to develop coherent responses to the threats that groups like ISIS pose, three critical issues need to be addressed.

(1) What drives individuals to join extremist groups, and are these drivers different for men or women?

(2) What are common methods of recruitment, and do they differ by gender?

(3) Have states and international institutions integrated gender perspectives in their responses to radicalization and extremist violence? Do these approaches empower women to resist recruitment?

Without an integrated dialogue between the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) and counterterrorism communities, the answers to these questions will remain incomplete and policy responses may fall short.

 

 Screen Shot 2017-05-31 at 11.57.48 AMWomen in Jihadist Organizations: Victims or Terrorists?

Many scholarly works on women in jihadi organizations emphasize women’s lack of agency. Authors of these works argue women have fallen victim to these male-dominated organizations and thus have lost control over their actions. However, certain groups of women in some jihadi organizations—for example, Islamic State (or IS), Jaish al-Fatah, and Jabhat Fateh al-Sham—enjoy a degree of agency within the scope of their duties.

This policy brief examines the extent to which women in jihadi organizations have agency—that is, to which extent they are able to make independent decisions. Understanding the conditions under which women have agency, allows policy makers to recognize the diversity of roles and contributions of women within jihadi organizations and design appropriate policy responses.

Screen Shot 2017-05-03 at 16.31.40Women, Gender and Terrorism: Understanding Cultural and Organizational Differences

As the idea that women can and should play pivotal roles in preventing and countering violent extremism (P/CVE) gains greater traction, decision makers and scholars must keep striving toward a more nuanced understanding of the historical, cultural, and gendered contexts that enable extremist movements and organizations to grow.

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Women Preventing Violent Extremism: Broadening the Binary Lens of "Mothers and Wives" by Fauziya Abdi Ali

Violent extremist narratives and actions threaten to roll back the hard-won gains women have made in the struggle for equality. With so much at stake, women must be engaged in efforts to counter violent extremism. However, women’s engagement in the fight against violent extremism also threatens these gains if engagement remains binary, failing to take into account the diverse roles of women.

 

WIIS Policy Brief_Women, Gender, and Terrorism - The Missing LinksWomen, Gender and Terrorism: The Missing Links

Chantal de Jonge Oudraat and Michael E. Brown

 

In March 2016, WIIS launched the Women, Terrorism, and Violent Extremism program. With the generous support of the Embassy of Liechtenstein in Washington, D.C., WIIS will facilitate a series of expert roundtables to explore the role of women in terrorist and violent extremist organizations, including the gendered dimensions of radicalization. These round tables will provide a forum for bringing together an international group of experts and policymakers from the counter-terrorism and Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) communities. Key takeaways and recommendations of expert roundtables will be captured and disseminated in the form of policy briefs.

The first Policy Brief draws on the first roundtable discussion, held on March 20, 2016. This roundtable featured four noted experts: Ms. Sanam Anderlini, Co-founder and Executive Director of the International Civil Society Action Network (ICAN); Dr. Kathleen Kuehnast, Senior Gender Advisor at the United States Institute of Peace (USIP); Dr. Paul Pillar, former official of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and now a non-resident Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution; and Dr. Lorenzo Vidino, Director of the Program on Extremism at George Washington University’s Center for Cyber and Homeland Security. For more on this event, see wiisglobal.org/events.

 

Screen Shot 2017-12-26 at 2.50.29 PMWPS+GPS: Adding Gender to the Peace and Security Equation

 Political leaders regularly make grand, public statements about the importance of the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) agenda for promoting national and international security, but their policy actions have fallen far short of their rhetorical declarations.

There are two main reasons for this. First, political leaders are the point persons for their male-dominated security establishments. These establishments do not prioritize women and gender issues in national and international security affairs. Second, the WPS agenda has been framed as a “women’s” issue, which makes it easier for the establishment to marginalize the WPS cause. Fixing the second problem will help us make more progress with the first—advancing women, gender perspectives, and gender equality in national and international security.

 

Women, Gender, and Terrorism - Policies and Programming

Women, Gender, and Terrorism Policies and Programming by Jeannette Gaudry Haynie and Dr. Chantal de Jonge Oudraat (2016)

In recent years, policymakers and international actors have begun to recognize the important role of women and women’s organizations in preventing and countering violent extremism (P/CVE). In October 2015, the UNSecurity Council adopted Resolution 2242, which linked the women, peace and security (WPS) and the P/CVE agendas and called for synergies between efforts aimed at countering violent extremism and those furthering the WPS agenda. In 2016, the US government incorporated P/CVE in its National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security.

The idea that women can be powerful allies in the fight against violent extremism is based primarily on two interrelated observations. First, women often function at the heart of their communities and are thus best placed to recognize early warning signs of radicalization. Effective P/CVE programs will capitalize on this. Second, a community that hopes to address extremism effectively must include the broadest possible range of perspectives in its programming. Because society, economies, and war affect them in gender- specific ways, women bring different perspectives to discussions and plans affecting security.

That said, women-centric P/CVE programming is in its infancy. An initial review of these programs points to five main problems, which are explored in this policy brief.

 

women-gender-and-terrorism Women, Gender and Terrorism: Gendered Aspects of Radicalization and Recruitment by Jeannette Gaudry Haynie (2016)

The rise of groups like ISIS has galvanized the expansion of the global terrorism problem. While ISIS is hardly the first extremist organization to attract women and to use gendered tactics for recruitment, its formation and growth has paralleled the explosion of social media, bringing unprecedented attention to the problem. As scholars and policymakers attempt to develop coherent responses to the threats that groups like ISIS pose, three critical issues need to be addressed.

(1) What drives individuals to join extremist groups, and are these drivers different for men or women?

(2) What are common methods of recruitment, and do they differ by gender?

(3) Have states and international institutions integrated gender perspectives in their responses to radicalization and extremist violence? Do these approaches empower women to resist recruitment?

Without an integrated dialogue between the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) and counterterrorism communities, the answers to these questions will remain incomplete and policy responses may fall short.

UN Security Resolution 1325 in Peacekeeping UN Security Resolution 1325 in Peacekeeping by Clara Fisher, Paige Harland, Kat Ilich, and Erin McGown (2016).

Despite the resolution’s widespread praise and recognition and the development of guidelines and indicators, on-the-ground implementation of UNSCR 1325 has been uneven, and has had varying degrees of effectiveness. This has resulted in a lack of women in senior leadership positions, failure to take gender-specific needs into account, and a loss of legitimacy for the United Nations. The full implementation of UNSCR 1325 would promote the inclusion of women and a gender perspective in peacekeeping missions.

This paper seeks to answer the question: How can the UN system bridge the implementation gaps of Security Council Resolution 1325 in its peacekeeping operations? We found that while enormous strides have been made in the inclusion of women and a gender perspective in peacekeeping, implementation is inhibited by three core issues: a lack of gender perspective, a lack of accountability, and a lack of resources. However, we also found that there are many practical suggestions for solutions to these core problems which could improve the implementation of UNSCR 1325.

 

WIIS Policy Brief_Women, Gender, and Terrorism - The Missing LinksWomen, Gender and Terrorism: The Missing Links by Chantal de Jonge Oudraat and Michael E. Brown (2016)

In March 2016, WIIS launched the Women, Terrorism, and Violent Extremism program. With the generous support of the Embassy of Liechtenstein in Washington, D.C., WIIS will facilitate a series of expert roundtables to explore the role of women in terrorist and violent extremist organizations, including the gendered dimensions of radicalization. These round tables will provide a forum for bringing together an international group of experts and policymakers from the counter-terrorism and Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) communities. Key takeaways and recommendations of expert roundtables will be captured and disseminated in the form of policy briefs.

The first Policy Brief draws on the first roundtable discussion, held on March 20, 2016. This roundtable featured four noted experts: Ms. Sanam Anderlini, Co-founder and Executive Director of the International Civil Society Action Network (ICAN); Dr. Kathleen Kuehnast, Senior Gender Advisor at the United States Institute of Peace (USIP); Dr. Paul Pillar, former official of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and now a non-resident Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution; and Dr. Lorenzo Vidino, Director of the Program on Extremism at George Washington University’s Center for Cyber and Homeland Security. For more on this event, see wiisglobal.org/events.

 

Screen Shot 2017-12-26 at 2.50.29 PMWPS+GPS: Adding Gender to the Peace and Security Equation

 Political leaders regularly make grand, public statements about the importance of the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) agenda for promoting national and international security, but their policy actions have fallen far short of their rhetorical declarations.

There are two main reasons for this. First, political leaders are the point persons for their male-dominated security establishments. These establishments do not prioritize women and gender issues in national and international security affairs. Second, the WPS agenda has been framed as a “women’s” issue, which makes it easier for the establishment to marginalize the WPS cause. Fixing the second problem will help us make more progress with the first—advancing women, gender perspectives, and gender equality in national and international security.

 

 Screen Shot 2017-05-31 at 11.57.48 AMWomen in Jihadist Organizations: Victims or Terrorists?

Many scholarly works on women in jihadi organizations emphasize women’s lack of agency. Authors of these works argue women have fallen victim to these male-dominated organizations and thus have lost control over their actions. However, certain groups of women in some jihadi organizations—for example, Islamic State (or IS), Jaish al-Fatah, and Jabhat Fateh al-Sham—enjoy a degree of agency within the scope of their duties.

This policy brief examines the extent to which women in jihadi organizations have agency—that is, to which extent they are able to make independent decisions. Understanding the conditions under which women have agency, allows policy makers to recognize the diversity of roles and contributions of women within jihadi organizations and design appropriate policy responses.

Screen Shot 2017-05-03 at 16.31.40Women, Gender and Terrorism: Understanding Cultural and Organizational Differences

As the idea that women can and should play pivotal roles in preventing and countering violent extremism (P/CVE) gains greater traction, decision makers and scholars must keep striving toward a more nuanced understanding of the historical, cultural, and gendered contexts that enable extremist movements and organizations to grow.

Screen Shot 2017-03-14 at 14.13.49

Women Preventing Violent Extremism: Broadening the Binary Lens of "Mothers and Wives" by Fauziya Abdi Ali

Violent extremist narratives and actions threaten to roll back the hard-won gains women have made in the struggle for equality. With so much at stake, women must be engaged in efforts to counter violent extremism. However, women’s engagement in the fight against violent extremism also threatens these gains if engagement remains binary, failing to take into account the diverse roles of women.

2015

 

Screen Shot 2015-11-24 at 9.57.51 AM

The 1325 Scorecard Report

Chantal de Jonge Oudraat, Sonja Stojanović-Gajić, Carolyn Washington, and Brooke Stedman

 

WIIS launched the 1325 Scorecard at NATO HQ on October 29, 2015. The 1325 Scorecard is a tool to evaluate how well the principles of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (UNSCR 1325) are implemented within the armed forces of NATO Allies. It also provides NATO and NATO member and partner states indications of how to improve implementation. Finally, it helps to further standardization and interoperability amongst NATO Allies.

3-piece publication on the status of UNSCR 1325

  1. Gender Mainstreaming: Indicators for the Implementation of UNSCR 1325 and Its Related Resolutions by Chantal de Jonge Oudraat, Sonja Stojanović‐Gajić, Carolyn Washington, and Brooke Stedman.
  2. Women in Combat - Adaptation and Change in the US Military by Ellen Haring.
  3. The Piece Missing from Peace by Jeannette Gaudry Haynie
2014

WIPS5 Women, Peace and Security: Practical Guidance on Using Law to Empower Women in Post-Conflict Systems by Arostegui, J; Bichetoero, V. (2014)

With the passage of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 in 2000, the Security Council for the first time not only recognized the disproportionate impact of conflict on women, it also mandated that the UN and all member states increase women’s participation in all peace processes, establish enforceable protections and ensure justice for women. Along with its companion Resolutions 1820, 1888, 1889, 1960, 2106 and 2122, which further clarify its requirements, UNSCR 1325 provides a strong framework and mandate for advancing gender equality and empowering and protecting women. It incorporates binding international law on the rights and protection of women and children such as the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), the Geneva Conventions and many others. Using the 1325 Women, Peace and Security framework as a synthesis of existing international law on the rights and protection of women in conflict and transition provides powerful tools to build inclusive and sustainable peace and security.

 

WIPS6

Women, Peace and Security: Practical Guidance on Using Law to Empower Women in Post-Conflict Case Studies  by Arostegui, J; Bichetero, V. (2014)

Uganda has had a history of civil conflict since its independence from the United Kingdom in 1962 - triggered by political instability and a series of military coups between groups of different ethnic and ideological composition that resulted in a series of dictatorships. In 1966, just four years after independence, the central government attacked the Buganda Kingdom, which had dominated during British rule, forced the King to flee, abolished traditional kingdoms and declared Uganda a republic. In 1971 Army Commander Idi Amin Dada overthrew the elected government of Milton Obote, and for eight years led the country through a regime of terror under which many people lost their lives. Amin was overthrown in 1979 by rebel Ugandan soldiers in exile supported by the army of Tanzania. Obote returned to power through the 1980 general elections, ruling with army support. In 1981 a five-year civil war broke out led by the current president, Yoweri Kaguta Museveni and the National Resistance Army (NRA), protesting the fraudulent elections. Known as the Ugandan Bush War, the conflict took place mainly in an area of fourteen districts north of Kampala that was known as the Luwero Triangle. Many human rights abuses were committed as the government attempted to suppress the rebellion and thousands of people were killed. The NRA finally succeeded in overthrowing the Obote government in 1986 and Museveni became president.

Women-in-Peace-and-SecProgress Report on Women in Peace & Security Careers: U.S. Congressional Staffs by Shoemaker, J;  Poiré, M. (2014).

This report, Women in Peace and Security Careers: U.S. Congressional Staffs, is intended to raise awareness among the policy community about how women are faring on Capitol Hill and what needs to be done to support more women in leadership positions in the legislative policy environment. This is the third WIIS study in the Women In Peace and Security Careers series. Since 2008, WIIS has documented the status of women in leadership positions and women’s perspectives on career advancement in United Nations Peace Operations and in the Executive Branch of the U.S. Government. These studies are based on qualitative data gathered from individual interviews and focus groups. The series highlights gaps in women’s representation and the voices and experiences of women who are navigating paths to advancement. The series also offers recommendations for peace and security institutions to better support women’s participation.

2010

Women-in-Peace-and-Sec.-Exec

Progress Report on Women in Peace & Security Careers: U.S. Executive Branch by Shoemaker, J; Park, J. (2010)

Recently, studies have focused on women’s leadership in some sectors, including academia, the media, and corporations. These studies have highlighted gaps in representation and proposed recommendations for improving women’s opportunities. But a missing component of research seems to be on women’s presence in a particular area of utmost importance—the national security and foreign policy arena. This is the first study to examine women in leadership within the Executive Branch of the U.S. Government in international security.

WIPS3Women in United Nations Peace Operations:Increasing the Leadership Opportunities  by Conaway, C; Shoemaker, J. (2008)

Since the historic adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000), the recognition of the important and beneficial role that women play in building sustainable peace has steadily increased. Civil society arguments for women’s inclusion in the formal processes of peacemaking and peacebuilding are bolstered by growing evidence of women’s impact on the ground in unstable and conflict-affected countries. Numerous policymakers and practitioners within the UN and other multi-lateral organizations are publicly acknowledging the value of women in leadership roles. Yet the lack of women in senior positions in the UN, particularly in peacekeeping missions, reflects the reality that significant cultural and institutional impediments remain to women’s entry and advancement within the UN. As a result, there is frustration with the slow pace of progress both inside and outside the system. There are few mechanisms in place to facilitate regular information sharing between the UN and civil society on this issue. Civil society organizations lack understanding about the skills and requirements for high-level positions, the process for selecting candidates, and the best means to nominate qualified experts. Within the UN, there are traditionally few resources and little attention devoted to outreach and communication with organizations that can access qualified female candidates, or to marketing these positions in a way that will attract the best talent.

Combat Integration Reports

 

Combat Integration Handbook: A Leader's Guide to Success

The Combat Integration Handbook is a reference guide for U.S. Army combat arms leaders on how to successfully lead gender integration in their units.

The Handbook exclusively addresses common challenges with gender integration in combat arms units and gives leaders and Soldiers best practices for successfully navigating the change process. This guide comes at an essential time as combat arms units await the assignment of the first combat arms women making their way through their training pipelines.

Following is an outline of the research that informed the handbook:

  • More than 30 hours of exclusive interviews with Cultural Support Team members, women who were attached to Special Operations units in Afghanistan. More than a half dozen individual interviews with combat arms officers and NCOs.
  • A Working Group of over 20 active duty Army officers and NCOs from across the US Army, who provided experience, input and feedback to the handbook.
  • Raw data from a Maneuver Center of Excellence survey of 816 officers from the Command and General Staff College Intermediate Level Education, which included the officer's views and concerns about women in combat.
  • Historical U.S. Army Studies, current studies on gender integration, partner nation reports on their own gender integration of combat arms and various other military, civilian and academic reports analyzing gender integration in the U.S. military and worldwide.

Although the handbook was created for combat arms units, leaders of all mixed-gender units may find this guide helpful.

In addition to the handbook WIIS provides the following courses to military units:

Leading Change: Integrating Women into Combat Units (1-2 days)

This course provides a brief historical overview, followed by an examination of legal frameworks and policies. It introduces the student to the vast number of research studies that have already been conducted on this topic and it ends with practical methods for leading organizational change in military units. Read more here.

Unbiased Performance Evaluations (2 days)

This training session is designed to: 1) Increase evaluators’ awareness concerning bias, specifically regarding gender and 2) Provide tools to prevent it. Evaluators completing this session will contribute to more objective assessments thereby maintaining performance standards fairly and consistently. Read more here.

For more courses visit the Women, Peace and Security Leadership Program

For more information on WIIS Gender Integration Workshops please email WIIS at CII@wiisglobal.org.

WIPS4Integration of Women in Ground Combat (2015)

Under the 1994 Direct Ground Combat Definition and Assignment Rule, women in the US military were excluded from assignments in which the primary mission was to engage in direct ground combat, and were permitted to be excluded from other assignments in certain circumstances. That policy was rescinded on January 24, 2013, by then-Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Martin Dempsey, and the Services were directed to open closed positions and units to women not later than January 1, 2016.

September 28, 2015: All Military Jobs Should Be Open to Women, Including Those in the Marine Corps. No Exceptions

September 28, 2015: Marine Corps Study Analysis

July 2015: Policy Brief - Women in Combat- CSTs

April, 2015: Combat Integration Status Report

January 22, 2015 Combat Integration: A Snapshot Two Years Later

January 1, 2015: Combat Integration: Status Update

 

January 28, 2014: Integration of Women in Ground Combat: A Snap Shot One Year Later

2013

July 2013: Four Critical Elements of Successful Integration by Kerry Crawford

June 2013: A Review of the Implementation Plans for the Elimination of the Direct Ground Combat Assignment Rule

 

Women In Peace and Security Careers

Women-in-Peace-and-SecProgress Report on Women in Peace & Security Careers: U.S. Congressional Staffs by Shoemaker, J;  Poiré, M. (2014).

This report, Women in Peace and Security Careers: U.S. Congressional Staffs, is intended to raise awareness among the policy community about how women are faring on Capitol Hill and what needs to be done to support more women in leadership positions in the legislative policy environment. This is the third WIIS study in the Women In Peace and Security Careers series. Since 2008, WIIS has documented the status of women in leadership positions and women’s perspectives on career advancement in United Nations Peace Operations and in the Executive Branch of the U.S. Government. These studies are based on qualitative data gathered from individual interviews and focus groups. The series highlights gaps in women’s representation and the voices and experiences of women who are navigating paths to advancement. The series also offers recommendations for peace and security institutions to better support women’s participation.

 

Women-in-Peace-and-Sec.-Exec

Progress Report on Women in Peace & Security Careers: U.S. Executive Branch by Shoemaker, J; Park, J. (2010)

Recently, studies have focused on women’s leadership in some sectors, including academia, the media, and corporations. These studies have highlighted gaps in representation and proposed recommendations for improving women’s opportunities. But a missing component of research seems to be on women’s presence in a particular area of utmost importance—the national security and foreign policy arena. This is the first study to examine women in leadership within the Executive Branch of the U.S. Government in international security.

 

WIPS3Women in United Nations Peace Operations:Increasing the Leadership Opportunities  by Conaway, C; Shoemaker, J. (2008)

Since the historic adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000), the recognition of the important and beneficial role that women play in building sustainable peace has steadily increased. Civil society arguments for women’s inclusion in the formal processes of peacemaking and peacebuilding are bolstered by growing evidence of women’s impact on the ground in unstable and conflict-affected countries. Numerous policymakers and practitioners within the UN and other multi-lateral organizations are publicly acknowledging the value of women in leadership roles. Yet the lack of women in senior positions in the UN, particularly in peacekeeping missions, reflects the reality that significant cultural and institutional impediments remain to women’s entry and advancement within the UN. As a result, there is frustration with the slow pace of progress both inside and outside the system. There are few mechanisms in place to facilitate regular information sharing between the UN and civil society on this issue. Civil society organizations lack understanding about the skills and requirements for high-level positions, the process for selecting candidates, and the best means to nominate qualified experts. Within the UN, there are traditionally few resources and little attention devoted to outreach and communication with organizations that can access qualified female candidates, or to marketing these positions in a way that will attract the best talent.

Law and Security
 WIPS6

Women, Peace and Security: Practical Guidance on Using Law to Empower Women in Post-Conflict Case Studies  by Arostegui, J; Bichetero, V. (2014)

Uganda has had a history of civil conflict since its independence from the United Kingdom in 1962 - triggered by political instability and a series of military coups between groups of different ethnic and ideological composition that resulted in a series of dictatorships. In 1966, just four years after independence, the central government attacked the Buganda Kingdom, which had dominated during British rule, forced the King to flee, abolished traditional kingdoms and declared Uganda a republic. In 1971 Army Commander Idi Amin Dada overthrew the elected government of Milton Obote, and for eight years led the country through a regime of terror under which many people lost their lives. Amin was overthrown in 1979 by rebel Ugandan soldiers in exile supported by the army of Tanzania. Obote returned to power through the 1980 general elections, ruling with army support. In 1981 a five-year civil war broke out led by the current president, Yoweri Kaguta Museveni and the National Resistance Army (NRA), protesting the fraudulent elections. Known as the Ugandan Bush War, the conflict took place mainly in an area of fourteen districts north of Kampala that was known as the Luwero Triangle. Many human rights abuses were committed as the government attempted to suppress the rebellion and thousands of people were killed. The NRA finally succeeded in overthrowing the Obote government in 1986 and Museveni became president.

WIIS Publications showcases the work provided by WIIS staff, affiliates, members, and the Civil Society Working Group for Women, Peace, and Security.

If you are a member of Women In International Security and would like your recent publication featured on our website, please email WIIS Global at info@wiisglobal.org.